PRATIKRAMAN, THE FOURTH ÄVASHYAK
Now we come to the 4th essential, known as Pratikraman. For this purpose, we first recall different types of living beings and express regret for hurting any of them. The scriptures stipulate 4200 species in all having different types of touch, taste, odor, shade and shape. There are eight types of touches (in practice only four types, because hard and soft touches, for instance, do not go together), five types of tastes, two types of odors, five types of shades and five types of shapes. By multiplying these together, we can get the figure of 2000. Those touches, tastes etc. do not constitute separate categories of species. But traditionally, each of the 4200 species is multiplied by 2000 so as to arrive at the total of 8.4 million species as given below.
700,000 earthly species, 700,000 aquatic species, 700,000 lustrous species, 700,000 gaseous species, 1,000,000 singular plant species, 1,400,000 multiple plant species, 200,000 two-sensed species, 200,000 three-sensed species, 200,000 four-sensed species, 400,000 heavenly species, 400,000 infernal species, 400,000 lower animal species and 1,400,000 human species; of these 8.4 million species, if I have hurt or killed any being, or if I have promoted such acts or encouraged the same, I mentally, verbally and physically beg to be atoned for that.
Now we recall 18 modes of committing sin and repent for indulging in any of them.
1) violence, 2) lies, 3) undue appropriation, 4) sensuous indulgence, 5) accumulation, 6) anger, 7) arrogance, 8) deceit, 9) greed, 10) attachment, 11) resentment, 12) disputes, 13) allegation, 14) slander and backbiting, 15) affection and disaffection, 16) gossiping, 17) deceitful lies and 18) wrong perception. Of these 18 modes of sin, if I have indulged in any of them or promoted or encouraged the same, I mentally, verbally and physically beg to be atoned for that.
(Now we recite Pratikraman Sutra, which is popularly known as Vanditu Sutra. That Sutra narrates the possibilities of transgressing the spiritual code and of indulging in transgression of various restraints and is meant to pray for their atonement. Stanzas 44 and 45 thereof, which are irrelevant to the Sutra are omitted. )
Bowing to all the liberated souls, religious preceptors and the saints,
I intend to atone for the infringement of laymen’s religious code.
Whatever transgressions I might have indulged in, subtle or gross, pertaining to
the code of knowledge, perception or conduct, I hate and abhor the same.
I turn back from various sinful activities, undertaken during the day by me or
through some one else, on account of the external or internal sense of possession.
I hate and abhor the bondage that I might have acquired by sense enjoyment,
or by virtue of anger, arrogance, deceit, and greed arising from craving or aversion.
I turn back from whatever violence I might have caused during the day,
while going, coming, standing or strolling, out of non-vigilance, compulsion or duty.
I turn back from indulgence during the day in doubtfulness, expectation, indecisiveness,
undue applause and contact with wrong believers, that violate the right perception;
I hate the violence that might have been caused to any of the six categories of living beings,
while cooking or making some one to cook for self or for others or for both.
(There are different ways of classifying the living beings. One way is to treat the earthly, aquatic, lustrous, gaseous and plant life as five immobile categories and to all mobile beings as the sixth category.)
I turn back from the transgressions during the day relating to five minor restraints, three auxiliary restraints and four disciplinary restraints.
Narrating the transgressions of five minor restraints
As regards the first minor restraint, I retreat from whatever I might have done
that cause gross violence due to non-vigilance or under the influence of defilement.
Killing, binding, amputation, overloading, depriving from food and drink are five transgressions of the first restraint. I retreat from indulging therein during the day.
As regards the second minor restraint, I retreat from whatever I might have done
to indulge in gross lies due to non-vigilance or under the influence of defilement.
Accusation, disclosure of close secrets, divulgence of spousal secrets, wrong teaching and forgery are five transgressions of the second restraint. I retreat from indulging therein during the day.
As regards the third minor restraint, I retreat from whatever I might have done
by way of gross misappropriation due to non-vigilance or under the influence of defilement.
Buying the stolen or smuggled goods, promoting the theft or burglary, adulteration, procuring by breach of rules and regulations, using wrong weights and measures are five transgressions of the third restraint.
I retreat from indulging therein during the day.
As regards the fourth minor restraint, I retreat from the adultery that I might have been involved in
due to non-vigilance or under the influence of defilement.
Premarital sex, illicit sex, lustful play, involvement in marriages of other people and intense attachment are five transgressions of the fourth restraint. I retreat from indulging therein during the day.
As regards the fifth minor restraint, I retreat from whatever I might have done
in violation of limiting the possessions due to non-vigilance or under the influence of defilement.
Excessive possession of monetary wealth and grains, land and building, gold and silver, other metals and articles of use, bipeds and quadrupeds constitutes five transgressions of the fifth restraint.
I retreat from indulging therein during the day.
Transgressions of three auxiliary restraints
I abhor the transgressions of the first auxiliary restraint, which result from crossing the limitations of movement in upward, downward or horizontal directions, extending the limitations in one direction by reducing in another and crossing the limit by oversight.
I abhor the transgressions of the second auxiliary restraint resulting from consumption or use of alcohol, meat, flowers, fruits, perfumes, garlands etc.
(Availing of consumable articles is treated as consumption, and availing of durable ones is treated as use.)
I retreat from the transgressions during the day arising from the consumption of sentient, forbidden, uncooked or partly cooked food and of the articles having little or no food value.
I turn from the violent occupations like furnace and kiln firing, those involving large scale destruction of plant life, fermentation industries, making and/or renting of animal drawn vehicles, breaking grounds and from dealings in teeth (inclusive of ivory, horns, bones, etc.), lacquer, chemicals (lard, fat, meat, etc.), hair (inclusive of fur, etc.) and poison (inclusive of all toxic and poisonous materials).
I also turn from the occupations involving crushing, amputation or mutilation, setting fire in forests or grass fields, drying of lakes and other water reservoirs, prostitution and rearing of violent animals.
Maintaining, extending or providing the violent means like fire-arms, pestles and grinders; charm, straw, wood, roots and drugs involve unnecessary violence. I retreat from involvement therein during the day.
I also turn away from avoidable bath, application of turmeric and perfumes, dyes and make up, undue indulgence in sound, sight, taste and smell, and use of glamorous clothes, luxurious seating arrangements and costly decoration.
I abhor sensuous entertainment, crude and vulgar jokes, gossiping, keeping the violent means loaded and inordinate attachment, which are the transgressions of the third auxiliary restraint known as averting the purposeless violence.
Transgressions of four disciplinary restraints
Wrong exercising of the physical, verbal and mental faculties, non-vigilance and forgetting the vow constitute the transgressions of the first disciplinary restraint; I abhor the same as they denigrate Sämäyik.
Bypassing the distance limitations by calling for something from the place lying beyond, sending something to such place, drawing someone’s attention by raising the sound, and projecting the presence by flinging an object constitute the transgressions of the second disciplinary restraint, Desävakasik. I abhor the same.
Faults pertaining to bedding, urination and excretion, indolence and worrying about the food constitute the transgressions of the third disciplinary restraint, Posah. I abhor the same.
Laying sentient articles upon the insentient ones, covering the insentient ones otherwise, misrepresenting the ownership of the articles, offering them with the sense of jealousy or animosity and inviting the monks too late constitute the transgressions of the fourth disciplinary restraint. I abhor the same.
I hate and abhor my servicing to the unrestrained well off or ill off mendicants, rendered by virtue of the compassion or on account of craving or aversion.
I hate and abhor, if I have failed to offer to the monks or have not given alms in spite of the presence of those, who observe the precepts of austerities and restraints.
Transgressions of Sanlekhanä or fast unto death
Desiring the happiness of this world, or of other world, wishing to survive (for worldly enjoyment) or earlier death (on account of distress resulting from the fast) and desiring the worldly life are the five transgressions of Sanlekhanä. Let me not have that till the end of life.
I retreat from transgressions of all the restraints, the physical ones bodily, verbal ones by mouth and mental ones by mind.
I abhor all the transgressions that might have occurred in respect of bowing, restraints, learning, vanities, instincts, defilement, evil exercising, constraints and meticulous vigilance.
(Bowing is of two types, Dev Vandan and Guru Vandan. Restraints are of 12 types mentioned above. Learning is of two types, studying and practicing. Vanities are mainly of the three types which are known as i) Rasgärva pertaining to enjoyment of tastes, ii) Ruddhigärva pertaining to wealth and authority and iii) Shätägärva pertaining to physical health and such other modes of comfort. Instincts refer to the natural instincts of food, fear, sex and accumulation. Anger, arrogance, deceit and greed are the four types of defilement. Evil exercising pertains to the wrong exercising of mental, verbal and physical capabilities. Constraints relate to constraining the faculties of mind, speech and body. Vigilance relate to taking the meticulous care while undertaking any activity.)
If a person having the right perception indulges in any sinful activity, he incurs a light bondage, because he does not get involved in those activities with the sense of cruelty.
As a well trained physician cures a disease, so the person with right perception immediately calms down even the light bondage by atonement, by repentance and by resorting to the auxiliary restraints.
One becomes free from poison by removal of the poison from the body by the knowledgeable enchanters or by the physicians having such expertise;
That way the true Shravak quickly removes the eight types of Karma, acquired on account of craving and aversion, by resorting to atonement and repentance.
As one becomes light by taking off the load from his head, so a sinning person becomes very light by atoning and repenting in front of Guru.
A layman heavily loaded by Karma, can end his misery in no time by resorting to this Pratikraman essential.
There are many grounds for atonement. If any of them relating to the main or auxiliary restraints remained out of sight at the time of Pratikraman, I hate and abhor the same.
I have arisen for observing the religion propounded by the omniscient Lords and for removing the obstruction to that. While atoning for the faults by mind, speech and body, I bow to twenty four Lords.
Let my days pass in contemplation of words turned out of the mouths of the omniscient Lords that destroy the long lasting sins and brings to end the millions of life cycles.
The omniscient Lords, the liberated Lords, sages, scriptures and religion are blissful to me; let the enlightened entities bestow peace and wisdom unto me.
When one does something that is forbidden or fails to do what he needs to do, or if he loses the right faith or indulges in anything contrary to the precepts, he should perform thePratikraman.
(To be recited by all the participants)
Khämemi Savvajive, Savvejivä Khamantu Me
Mitti Me Savvabhooesu Veram Majza Na Kenai
I forgive all the living beings, let everyone forgive me; I have friendship for every living being; animosity towards none.
Thus I have atoned to myself, hated and abhorred in front of Guru and have appropriately despised the lapses and evils. Now turning away therefrom by mind, speech and body, I bow to 24 omniscient Lords.